Children are at a greater risk of abuse, neglect, violence, exploitation, trafficking or forced military recruitment. They may also have witnessed or experienced violent acts and/or been separated from their families.

Child Labor

Child labor is the work that children should not be doing because they are too young to work, or even if they are old enough to work, the job they are working is dangerous and life threatening. Children’s or adolescents’ participation in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their education, is generally regarded as being something positive.

Whether or not particular forms of “work” can be called “child labor” depends on the child’s age, the type and hours of work performed and the conditions under which it is performed.
Violence and Physical Abuse

Violence against children cuts across boundaries of culture, class, education, income and ethnic origin, and occurs in many different settings. Some of it is allowed by national laws and may be rooted in cultural, economic and social practices.


Sexual Abuse

Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse that includes sexual activity with a minor. A child cannot consent to any form of sexual activity. Some forms of child sexual abuse include:

  1. Obscene phone calls, text messages, or digital interaction
  2. Fondling
  3. Exhibitionism, or exposing oneself to a minor
  4. Masturbation in the presence of a minor or forcing the minor to masturbate
  5. Intercourse
  6. Sex of any kind with a minor, including vaginal, oral, or anal
  7. Producing, owning, or sharing pornographic images or movies of children
  8. Sex trafficking
  9. Any other sexual conduct that is harmful to a child's mental, emotional, or physical welfare


Child sexual abuse does not need to include physical contact between a perpetrator and a child.
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